Tuberculosis, Causes, Risk Factors, Treatments and Preventions

Tuberculosis disease in threat or lungs can be infectious. This indicate that bacteria of TB can be spread one person to the other person. TB can not be spread to the other person if TB in these parts of the body, like as spine or kidney. A person who faces TB disease mostly spread it to the other person by spending time with them everyday, it may include: friends, schoolmates, co-workers and family members.

Types of Tuberculosis:

Everyone who suffer in tuberculosis bacteria may not become sick. Therefore, there are two conditions related to tuberculosis exist: Active TB disease and latent TB infection.

 Latent TB:

The bacteria of TB can live in a person body without making sick. Many persons who live or breathe in (environment) bacteria of TB have become infected, the body of a person is capable to fight with bacteria to revoke them from increasing or growing. Following are the signs and symptoms of a person who have latent TB disease, included: do not feel sick, TB disease may increase if they did not receive any treatment, have no signs specially and bacteria of TB cannot spread to the others.

The person who has infection of latent TB may not develop TB disease. In these types of persons, TB bacteria stay dormant for a lifetime ineffective. But many other persons with weaken immune system of the body, bacterium become active which may cause TB disease.

Active TB:

The immune system is a system in human body which control disease from growing, therefore, bacteria of tuberculosis become active if immune system is weakened.

The person who infected by tuberculosis disease may spread bacteria to the other people when he spends time with them. There is a greater chance of TB disease for those persons who are infected by HIV than the person with healthy immune system.

Signs and Symptoms of Tuberculosis Disease:

Signs or symptoms of TB disease may depend on that bacteria of TB are growing on which part of the body. Mostly bacteria of tuberculosis may grow in throat or lungs. The disease of TB in lungs may have following symptoms like as, Chest pain, if the cough lasted more than 3 weeks and sputum or coughing up blood.

Some other Signs of TB Disease are Follows:

Such as, Fatigue or weakness, chills, no appetite, fever, sweet at night and weight loss. Tuberculosis disease may also affect many other parts of the body such as mine brain or kidney. Symptoms may differ according to involvement of organs, e.g., the sign blood in urine indicate the tuberculosis of kidney and back pain may give the sign of spine tuberculosis.

Causes of Tuberculosis:

There is a major cause of tuberculosis is a bacterium which is spread from one person to the other person by microscopic germs which are released into the air. This may occur when anyone which is suspected by tuberculosis may speaks, coughs, sneezes, spits or sings.

Tuberculosis does not easy to catch because it is almost infectious. There are greater chances of TB bacteria, you live in an environment where mostly people suspected by tuberculosis. A person who has appropriate treatment of active TB bacteria more than 2 weeks are no longer infectious

HIV and TB:

Dramatically increased in the number of tuberculosis cases since 1980s due to spreading of HIV virus which may cause AIDS. HIV virus destruct immune system of the body which may face difficulty in controlling the bacteria of tuberculosis. Therefore, the person who have HIV positive have a higher chance of tuberculosis then the people whose HIV is negative.

Diabetes and TB:

The person who is suspected by diabetes have a great risk of tuberculosis because diabetes weakens the immune system of person and may reduce defending power against disease.

“The disease (diabetes) is a chronic disease which affects the body of person turns foods are meal into energy.”

Tuberculosis Risk Factors:

Every person can get the disease of tuberculosis but some specific risk factors which increased risk of disease. The person with weak immune system may have high chance of tuberculosis disease especially who are infected by HIV than the person who have strong immune system. These risk factors may include:

 The Weak Immune System:

A strong immune system has the power to fight against the tuberculosis bacteria or any other type of disease. Various types of conditions, diseases and medications may reduce the resistant power of immune system, such as diabetes HIV/AIDS, certain cancers, malnutrition, chemotherapy, use of medicine to treat crohn’s disease, rheumatoid and psoriasis, severe disease of kidney and advanced age or very young age.

Living or Traveling in Specific Area:

The risk of tuberculosis may increase for those persons who travel or live in the areas where a high rate of tuberculosis disease occurs, such as Asia, Eastern Europe, Russia, Africa, Caribbean Islands and Latin America.

Use of Substance and Poverty:

 Absence of Medical Care:

The medical treatment is necessary to reduce growing power of any disease. If you live in an environment where the income of a person is low or fixed, live in rural areas, or homeless and lower access to medical care which is needed to treat or diagnose tuberculosis.

Substance Use:

Excessive use of alcohol may distrust immune system of your body which makes you more harmful to TB.

 Use of Tobacco:

“Smoking is injurious for health” tobacco may increase chances of getting tuberculosis and may cause of death. Use of tobacco is a major cause of lung cancer and later on may cause of death.

Where you living or working:

 Working as Health Care:

You are living in an environment where you remain in contact with those people which are suspected by TB bacteria may increase the chances of tuberculosis. Frequently wash your hands, use sanitizer and wearing mask may reduce risk of TB disease.

 Working or Living in a Facility of Residential Care:

Mostly people who are working or leave in homeless shelters, nursing homes or psychiatric hospital and prisons Have a greater chance of tuberculosis. This disease may occur in an environment where there is poor ventilation and overcrowding.

 Migration from a Country or Living where Tuberculosis is Common:

If a person lives or migrate from a country where the disease of tuberculosis is common, may increase the possibility of TB bacteria.

Treatment of Tuberculosis Disease:

In the treatment of tuberculosis medications play vital role or cornerstone. The treatment of tuberculosis takes more time than the treatment of other kinds of bacterial diseases or infections. The length of treatment may depend on the age of patient, possible drug resistance time, infected part of the body and overall health condition. The patient may take drugs or medicines for 6 to 9 months.

 Most Common Medications of Tuberculosis:

According to the condition of tuberculosis you may need medicines. You may take one or two kinds of tuberculosis medications if you face the disease of latent tuberculosis. In active TB several kinds of medicines are used which may take a long time to recover.

The US food and drug administration (FDA) approve 10 medicines for treatment of tuberculosis but among 10 drugs, four drugs are most commonly used doctors in the treatment of tuberculosis, such as 1) Pyrazinamide (PZA), 2) Isoniazid (INH), 3) Ethambutol (EMB) and 4) Rifampin (RIF)

­­Complete Treatment:

It is necessary to complete the treatment of tuberculosis. You may feel better after the completing of 2-3 weeks medicines then there is a chance to stop taking the drugs of tuberculosis. But it is necessary or crucial to complete the full course of treatment of therapy and take drugs according to the prescription of your doctor. Skipping some doses or revoking treatment too quickly may permit the bacteria which are still alive may lead to tuberculosis again.

 Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) is a program which is recommended for the helping of sick people. In this type of approach, a worker of health Care administer all drugs. Therefore, there is no need to remember to take it on your own.

Preventions of Tuberculosis Disease:

If your latent TB infection test is positive then your doctor may diagnose or advice you to take medicine for reducing the chances of tuberculosis disease. There are two conditions of tuberculosis active tuberculosis and latent TB infection. The active tuberculosis is a condition which is infectious that affects the lungs. Therefore, you may take medicine to prevent or converting latent TB infection into active tuberculosis.

Protect your Friends, Families and Relatives:

Active TB is a condition of tuberculosis by which harmful germs spread in an environment that affects other peoples. Active TB is also infectious disease, therefore few weeks treatment with medication of TB may remove contagious anymore. Following are the main tips which may help to revoke spreading the disease of tuberculosis to your friends, families and relatives.

 Stay Home:

Revoke yourself from other people’s during the treatment of active tuberculosis such as going to school or work.

 Cover your Mouth:

Mostly you should cover your mouth with tissue for stop spreading germs into the air such as sneeze, laugh or cough. Put all the dirty tissues into a bag, thrown it away or dissolve it.

 Wearing Mask:

You are wearing mask when you are going in a crowded environment, save other persons during 1st week of treatment of tuberculosis which may reduce the chances of transmission of disease.

 Ventilate the Room:

The germs of tuberculosis easily spread in a small or closed place where the movement of air is very low. Live in a room where the system of ventilation is good or fresh air.

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Akmal Ameer Gohar

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